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Saturday, 30 January 2021

ADHYHAN NISHPATI SECOND SEM ENGLISH 3 TO 8

ADHYHAN NISHPATI SECOND SEM ENGLISH 3 TO 8

Education reform in the United States since the 1980s[1] has been largely driven by the setting of academic standards for what students should know and be able to do. These standards can then be used to guide all other system components. The SBE (standards-based education) reform[2] movement calls for clear, measurable standards for all school students. Rather than norm-referenced rankings,[3] a standards-based system measures each student against the concrete standard. Curriculum, assessments, and professional development are aligned to the standards.
Outcomes-based education Edit
Standards are an evolution of the earlier OBE (outcomes-based education)[4] which was largely rejected in the United States as unworkable in the 1990s, and is still being implemented by some and abandoned by other governments. In contrast, the more modest "standards" reform has been limited to the core goals of the OBE programs:[dubious – discuss]

the creation of curriculum frameworks which outline specific knowledge or skills which students must acquire,
an emphasis on criterion-referenced assessments which are aligned to the frameworks, and
the imposition of some high-stakes tests, such as graduation examinations requiring a high standard of performance to receive a diploma.
In the process of establishing standards for each individual curriculum area, such as mathematics and science, many other reforms, such as inquiry-based science may be implemented, but these are not core aspects of the standards program.[5]





The standards movement can be traced to the efforts of Marc Tucker's NCEE [6] which adapted aspects of William Spady's OBE[7] movement into a system based on creating standards and assessments for a Certificate of Initial Mastery.[8] This credential has since been abandoned by every state which first adopted the concept, including Washington and Oregon and largely replaced by graduation examinations. His organization had contracts with states and districts covering as many as half of all American school children by their own claims, and many states enacted education reform legislation in the early 1990s based on this model, which was also known at the time as "performance-based education" as OBE (and the non-OBE progressive reforms co-marketed with it) had been too widely attacked to be saleable under that name. Though the standards movement has a stronger backing from conservatives than OBE by adopting a platform of raising higher academic standards, other conservatives believe that it is merely a re-labeling of a failed, unrealistic vision. It is believed to be the educational equivalent of a planned economy which attempts to require all children to perform at world-class levels merely by raising expectations and imposing punishments and sanctions on schools and children who fall short of the new standards.

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