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Friday, 15 March 2019



You must have come across the word ‘Government’ in newspapers, radio and T.V. What is ‘Government’? What functions does it perform and what is its importance in our lives? We will study about the ‘Government’ in this lesson. You must be aware that a country needs a government to make laws as per its Constitution, take decisions and implement them. For example, where should schools and roads be constructed? Should the rates of different commodities be increased or decreased? How to ensure that electricity is supplied to everyone? Decisions such as these are usually taken by the government. Thus, the government performs a very important function. We come to know about the government’s work through the Media.

Functions of the Government

The government is like a ‘managing committee’. Usually, in a democracy the government works as per the wishes of the people and for their welfare. The government also takes various steps to solve the economic and social problems of the people. It is concerned about the nation’s economic condition and problems of poverty, unemployment, literacy, health, etc. It also provides various facilities like making low priced food grains available through ration shops; assistance during disasters and calamities; establishing educational institutions and hospitals; and runs services like transport, judiciary, post and telegraph, railways, etc.The government also maintains friendly relations with other countries.

Importance of the Government

The government is necessary to ensure that the law is same for everyone. It frames laws and sees that it is implemented by the concerned authorities and the police. A very important function of the government is to makes rules and regulations whenever there is a public gathering. The government, thus, plays a vital role in maintaining law, order and peace and also ensures the development of the nation.

The Government at different levels

The government is responsible for providing various facilities in different fields. How does the government arrange for all this? India is a vast country. If the administrationwas centralized, many problems would arise and will cause inconvenience to the citizens will be inconvenienced. Therefore, our government works at different levels - Local Level, State Level and National Level. Local level government is concerned withthe affairs of villages and cities. State level government deals with matters at the state level while the government at the National level is responsible for work related to the entire nation. You have already studied about the Local level and will learn about the State Government in the next unit. In the next class you will learn about the National government i.e. the Central Government (Union Government).

The Government and Law

The Government frames laws and they must be obeyed by all citizens. Law and order is very important for the proper functioning of the government. The government has the authority to make as well as implement laws. Let us take an example.  You must have a ticket while travelling by train. If you are caught travelling without a ticket, you have to either pay a penalty or go to jail. Even though the government may work lawfully, in case citizens feel that laws are not being executed properly, they have the right to raise their voice or even go to court. The court can order the government to take appropriate measures.

Organs of the Government

You must have realized that the organization responsible for the proper functioning of the country is known as a ‘Government’. Therefore, the government is an essential organ of a nation and has to perform various functions. The government frames acts and laws and ensures their proper execution. It sees to it that the law is suitably interpreted and implemented and also ensures that justice is done. The three arms of the government are to legislate, to execute and to impart justice. The arm that frames laws is known as the ‘Legislature’ (which comprises the Vidhan Sabha) and that which executes the law is called the ‘Executive’. The arm which works towards the implementation of justice is called the ‘Judiciary’ and it takes action against offenders. India is a vast country made up of a union of different states. The Constitution has made India into a union of states for the smooth functioning of the administration. Thus, India is a federal state. 

This means that the government functions at two levels: Central and State level. The government at the national level is called ‘Central’ or ‘Union’ Government. It looks after the administration of the whole country. The government at the state level is called ‘State’ Government. We will study more about the organs of the State government here. The legislative body of an Indian state may have one or two ‘houses’. The Lower House is known as Legislative Assembly and the Upper House is known as Legislative Council. The Governor is also a part of the State government. The state of Gujarat has only the Lower House (Legislative Assembly) Most of the states do not have a Legislative Council.

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